Happiness is an egg chair

Heaven is both green and egg-shaped, and don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.


Everyone talks about Athens’ rolling hills, or Ohio University’s beautiful architecture, but no one ever talks about the egg chairs on the fourth floor of Alden Library. They’re the real hidden gems.

Students burrow deep inside Alden Library’s egg chairs for the comfort of have their own special place. Photo courtesy of Olivia Miltner

Early spring always brings two things — the rain and a quest to find the perfect spot to sit between classes. You arrive at Alden Library, a solid choice because hey, with seven floors you’d think there’d be an abundance of chairs. There is, but that doesn’t stop students from forming a queue that begins on the second floor and winds up the staircase all the way to the fourth floor, leading up to — you guessed it — the egg chairs.

Repeat this just about every day, and you get the idea that these chairs are a big deal. But every once in a while, you’ll find an open one. That, my friends, is a magical day. First comes the split second of disbelief because you know how popular these chairs are. The fact that one’s actually empty must be a mistake. That disbelief will quickly fade to excitement and then determination, and gosh dang it you’re going to sit in that chair.

Me on the day I found true bliss. Photo by Cat Hofacker

You’ve sat down in lots of chairs before, but this is something else. You don’t just sit down in an egg chair. You sink into it until you’re cradled by a cushion of soft green felt, and you feel safe. Heck, you practically disappear, and here’s where I suspect the real draw of these chairs lie: It’s like you’re in your own little world.

Let’s face it, OU has a beautiful campus, and the students are a large part of what gives the school its unique personality. The Bobcat family is great, but here’s the thing about families, even the ones you choose: Sometimes you don’t want to see them. That’s the beauty of the egg chair. When you sit in one, you’re on your personal island, free to work or nap or watch Netflix in your own little cocoon of happiness.

The one true downside of the egg chair is that once you’re in, you never want to get out. I don’t need to go to class, you think because what is class when you’re so comfortable? A missed class here and there is no real cause for concern, but eventually your friends might start to wonder where you are after three days. And your mom will worry because you don’t answer her calls but keep posting Twitter pics with a weird, green backdrop. The real problem is you’ll eventually run out of food.

The ultimate dilemma: You’re hungry, and low blood sugar really shouldn’t be ignored. However, you know the second you get up, that chair is lost to you forever. So you wait, and you wait, but by now it’s been a week and you really must go. So you tearfully gather your things and reluctantly emerge into the real world. As you leave, you turn back for one last look at your beloved chair, but someone’s already in it.

Well, I guess heaven isn’t made for mere mortals to grasp.

Writing and research resources for graduate students at Ohio University

If you have already decided to attend Ohio University for you graduate education, then you are probably already aware that O.U. is a top research institution. But for those who are unsure if they are going to continue their education, or who are still trying to decide where to go, they should know O.U. is nationally recognized for the research its students and faculty produce. Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the framework used to rank colleges and universities in the U.S., ranks O.U. as a “Research II University”: it is a university that consistently generates a high output of research. And because O.U. is so focused on leading the country in a wide range of fields, from avionics engineering and virtual reality to mass media and computational neuroscience, they place a premium on providing graduate students with all the tools they need to succeed in fulfilling their goal to become world class academics.

The following is a list of five things Ohio University does to help their graduate students become better communicators, researchers, and, most importantly, advanced-degree holders.


1) Librarians are probably the most easily accessible but underutilized resource. Here at O.U., every college has their own designated librarian. These people literally come to work each day for eight hours just to help you find stuff. Each one specializes in a particular subject, so no matter what you are studying, there is at least one librarian that is familiar with the type of questions you are investigating. Doing a literature review on the mating habits of pygmy marmoset monkeys? Ask the biological sciences librarian; he can help. Can’t find any research on the subharmonics of Tuvan throat singers? It’s out there; you just need an expert to help you look. All the librarians at O.U. have a master’s degree in library sciences, so they are highly trained professionals who have a passion for helping young academics succeed. Jessica Hagman, the subject librarian for the Scripps College of Communication, says “just ask.” If they don’t know the answer, then they will find someone who does.“It’s our ethos: if you ask me a question, I’m going to follow it until I get you an answer,” she said. The librarians at Alden also regularly make “how to” videos and posts them on their Youtube page. Here is a short tutorial about how to use Zotero, a dynamic research tool every grad student should know how to use.



2)  E.L.I.P., or the English Language Improvement Program, is a set of courses O.U. provides to prep grad students for academic success. If you are a native English speaker, don’t be fooled, these courses can help you with writing your thesis or dissertation. There is even a course to help you prep for the dreaded oral defense. These courses, however, are an excellent option for students who are speaking English as a second language. It is hard enough to move to a place where no one speaks your native tongue, but it is even harder to speak and write academese in a language you have not been speaking since birth. E.L.I.P. can help. They have two courses exclusively for international students that teach academic vocabulary, grammar, common idioms, strategies for public speaking, and the finer points of American culture. All of these courses can be counted towards earning your degree, and there are no extra fees or costs. Dawn Bikowski, the director of E.L.I.P., says, “No other university offers this kind of support that I have come across in the country.”

3)  The Graduate Writing and Research Center (G.W.R.C.) is another great resource available to grad students at O.U. Say the end of the semester is fast approaching and you have a major paper coming due that counts for almost your entire grade, well you can take your paper to the G.W.R.C. and have them proof it. They will help you with formatting your paper, as well as provide feedback on what corrections you need to make to have a solid paper. However, keep in mind that you have to schedule an appointment well ahead of time, so don’t expect to be able to walk in the day before your paper is due.

4)  The G.W.R.C. also holds regular workshops and events to get you in gear to sit down and write your daunting paper, thesis, or dissertation. One such workshop the G.W.R.C. regularly conducts is the “Writing the Literature Review Workshop.” This workshop will help you blast through any writer’s block you might have, and get the ball rolling on your papers. The G.W.R.C. will teach you about the structure of a literature review and how you should write one, and if you already have one written and you want them to look at it, then bring it with you. The G.W.R.C. also holds events such as “The Long Night Against Procrastination” and the “Dissertation Writing Retreat.” The Long Night Against Procrastination is a six-hour writing marathon held in Alden Library where you come in and plop yourself down and begin hacking away on whatever project is going to end your life if you do not get it finished on time. The G.W.R.C. tutors and the librarians are there to help you with whatever you need. The Dissertation Writing Retreat is exactly what it sounds like: it is a week where everything you do is about writing your dissertation. The G.W.R.C. only accepts 15 students for this event, and for five days you have to commit fully to putting in some serious work on your dissertation. If you choose to sign up for the retreat, you will be given some instruction on how to write a dissertation, tutors will be available, and they’ll even teach you some techniques for stress management.

5)  On top of providing specialized courses, E.L.I.P. also has a graduate writing and critical reading lab. These labs provide a designated place on a campus where you can come in and get feedback and tutoring on whatever project you are working on. There is always a team of experienced tutors there to help you with your research. They also have computers in the lab, so if you do not have your laptop with you, they got you covered.


There you have it folks, five incredible services O.U. goes out of their way to provide for their graduate students. If you are smart enough to get accepted as a graduate student at O.U., then you should be smart enough to take advantage of these great resources. And if you are still on the fence about coming to O.U., then shop around; I am sure you will not find a university that is more dedicated to the success of their graduate students as Ohio University is.

How to pass your college classes

As Bobcat Student Orientation draws near, many high school seniors, as well as their families, begin to think about what their next four years are going to entail: roommates, dorm life, dining halls, parties, interviews, career fairs, apartments… It’s funny how college course are normally not what students look forward to when it comes to the college experience. It’s funny how very few students actually look forward to going to class.

Failing a class is a huge fear among incoming freshmen and their worrisome parents, but taking the right steps and avoiding a few bad habits will ensure success in your college academics. Here’s your crash course on how to pass all your classes.


What’s Considered Failing?

In high school, failing was normally denoted with a D or F. College is a little different, though. Some majors have certain grade requirements. For instance, at Ohio University, medical students need a B or higher to receive credit for a class. Students under the Scripps College of Communication, as well as the College of Business, need a C or higher.


How Do I Know Which Classes to Pick?

Let’s face it: some professors are better than others. In every university, you’ll find professors experiencing burnout, or you’ll stumble upon professors who seem to have no mercy on their students. That’s why it’s important to do a little research on prospective profs. For instance, ratemyprofessor.com is a great resource to use when you’re trying to decide between class sections: you can tear through many reviews on a variety of professors on campus; after all, a professor can make or break your experience with a certain class.


Failing Classes: What’s the Common Denominator?

In a nutshell, not going to class can kill your chances of passing it, and having a set routine of when and what you study will help you to remember assignments and tests.


Other Tips for Passing a Challenging Course

1. Send out a group email suggesting a study group.

This may sound cheesy, but it can prove to be very helpful. In most instances, if you’re really confused by a concept you’re going over in class, someone else is not getting it. Talking it out with someone could help you and your classmate(s) figure the subject out.

2. Hire a tutor.

Spending money to pay for a tutor isn’t ideal, but it will save you money in the long run (tuition, fees, and textbooks really do add up). Sometimes people put up flyers on campus offering tutoring services.

3. Talk to the professor during his or her office hours.

When in doubt, ask your professor. That’s what they’re in their office for. If you happen to have a professor who is incredibly busy or unapproachable, hit up your course TA. He or she may have office hours, too.

4. Talk to a person who participates in the class often.

Because he or she speaks up in class quite often, he or she must have some idea of what is happening in the course. *Caveat* Don’t ask for help from the class heckler: it’ll frustrate you more than it will help you. You want to get help from someone who spouts answers to questions, not his or her opinion on every topic related to your course.

5. Look up additional resources online.

When the professor, your classmates, and your textbook fail you, you always have thousands of digital sources to turn to. Schmoop is a solid place for literary and math help, for instance.

6. Check out one of the many academic centers or resources on campus.

If you need help writing a paper, book a tutor at the Writing Center on the 2nd floor of Alden Library. Their staff consists of English and Journalism students and staff trained to critique your paper and help answer your questions. Other course offer Supplemental Instruction, or SI. These sessions are packed with slow-paced information to help you work out the kinks in your understanding of the course content.


Now, what happens if you do fail a class? Let’s hear from a music student who admits to struggling in one of her college courses.

If It Happens to You

You’ll need to sit down with your adviser to weigh your options and hash out a plan, ASAP.

You’ll more likely than not have to retake the course; keep in mind, though, that if it was a class that fulfilled a certain requirement for your major, you might be able to take a different course. You may have needed the class for a college requirement, meaning a class you take for the school with which your major is classified. It could also be a general education requirement, or gen-ed. Depending on what requirement the class was fulfilling, you may be able to take another class instead of re-taking the one you failed.

Have no fear, future Bobcats. Freshman year is going to be epic: inside and outside the classroom. Do your part, and you’ll go far.


Flying with Scripps PRSSA

Eight rows of colorful, cushioned chairs were set up across the Friends of the Libraries room on the third floor of Alden Library. The week 5 meeting of Scripps PRSSA was set to begin at 6 p.m. on Monday, February 8, 2016.

Scripps PRSSA or Scripps Public Relations Student Society of America, is a student-run organization within the E.W. Scripps School of Journalism. The chapter’s main goal is “to offer members beneficial relationships with public relations practitioners that facilitate the learning, acquiring and development of professional skills -supplemented by educational knowledge- to be applied in everyday decisions”.

Jess and Megan have both created strong relationships and friendships through Scripps PRSSA.
Scripps PRSSA President Jess Carnprobst and Executive Vice President Megan Newton after Monday’s meeting.

A little after 6 p.m., Scripps PRSSA President, Jess Carnprobst, took the floor to kick off the night’s meeting. As a senior and member of Scripps PRSSA, I know the meeting’s typical routine. Every Monday night begins with announcements from the executive board regarding opportunities for dues-paying members, networking trips, and committees. After the exec board makes their announcements, members have the chance to make announcements of their own.

Then, it’s time for the “Member Spotlight” and on Monday, Grace Driscoll was the lucky member. The Member Spotlight is a chance for PRSSA members to share his or her accomplishments, passions, and goals with the rest of the organization. Once the Member Spotlight concludes, a professional speaker is introduced. Monday night’s speaker was Brie Strickland, a Social Business Specialist for Southwest Airlines.

Brie Strickland, a 2014 Southern Methodist University grad, stood up out of her chair and made her way to the front of the room. As Scripps students, most of us were used to hearing job titles involving the words “social media”. So, when Brie mentioned her title as a Social Business Specialist, many eyebrows were raised. Brie went onto explain that social business is “so much more than just tweeting”. Social business is a strategy form that looks at how social media impacts every aspect of a company.

“If you want to work in the social business industry, you need to get as much experience as possible. It’s such a new industry so any chance you get have a social media presence, take it,” advised Brie Strickland.

Scripps PRSSA provides great opportunities for networking.
Brie Strickland, Social Business Specialist, distributed her business cards at Monday’s Scripps PRSSA meeting.

Scripps PRSSA members were given an inside look at how Southwest Airlines operates their social media.

With nearly 4.8 million likes on Facebook, 1.9 million followers on Twitter, and 185,000 followers on Instagram, it seems like it would be impossible to keep up with all of the user activity. But Brie shared that Southwest Airlines has a Listening Center of 35 employees that work 24/7 answering questions, comments, complaints, and compliments via social media. Brie is involved with a lot of the goodwill engagement and pointed out that social listening is a major key to Southwest Airlines.

The laughter, chatter, and smiles that were shared throughout the meeting helped show how close-knit the Scripps PRSSA chapter truly is. After every Scripps PRSSA meeting, the organization gathers at The Pigskin to have dinner and socialize with that night’s speaker as well as with one another. This chapter will not only provide you with professional relationships but it will also open the door to many new friendships.

Scripps PRSSA is more than just networking trips and Monday night meetings. “PRSSA has taught me not to underestimate the power of people,” tells Scripps senior and Executive Vice President Megan Newton. “We might not be doctors or lawyers but we still have the opportunity to help people and tell their stories. Everyone in PRSSA has different personalities that we can showcase.”

Scripps PRSSA meets every Monday at 6 p.m. in Alden Library’s Friends of the Libraries room. Visit their website for more information on the chapter. And be sure to follow Scripps PRSSA on Twitter and Instagram, @scrippsprssa, for all things PR.

My new friend at the library

Brasci working at her desk during her shift.

Brasci Cermack is a freshman from Columbus, OH majoring in RFPD. She has worked at Alden Library the last two months. “I like it, it is pretty cool. I can do homework while I am working, which is nice.” She plans to continue  working at Alden for the rest of the school year and possibly in her future years at Ohio University. Brasci was very polite and was more than happy to let me take her picture and ask her a few questions.  #PlanetAthens

In my place: Alden Library

The view from behind the Learning Common's Desk. As a Multimedia Specialist at Alden Library, Savoldi assists patrons with everything from printing to checking out books.
The view from behind the Learning Common’s Desk. As a Multimedia Specialist at Alden Library, Savoldi assists patrons with everything from printing to checking out books.

I hate Ohio University.

Yes, you read that right.

This is no home away from home for me. I knew from the moment I arrived freshman year that this was not the place I was meant to be. From the party scene reputation to the small town vibe, I just don’t fit in here. After considering transferring, I decided on graduating a year early and staying busy with work in the meantime. So then began the journey to find a job, but little did I know that this job would actually end up finding me.

I started working at Alden Library as a Multimedia Specialist in September of last year. Every day the tasks remain the same: addressing printing issues, checking items out to patrons, making sure the supply table is stocked, answering online chat questions, the list goes on. Some may think I’m crazy for enjoying such a mundane line of work; however, it’s the morale of Alden’s Learning Commons that invigorates each shift.

This job is more than just a place where I clock in and out. It’s allowed me to meet some of my dearest friends while also gaining valuable experience to build my resume. Not only do I get to interact with my fellow coworkers, but I also get the pleasure of helping fellow Bobcats discover the tools they need to better their studies.

Every time I walk through those double doors, I forget about the melancholy Athens brings me. Whether it’s a hectic Monday afternoon or late night Friday shift, the positivity never fades. Alden has given me the ability to see my potential, find my passions and ultimately recognize the radiant person I’m supposed to be.

Although hate may be a strong word, so is love and I absolutely love my job at Alden Library. It’s my favorite place to be.

The Study Sanctuary: Alden’s Oasis of Solitude

Of all the study hot-spots on Ohio University’s campus, there is one place where even the most easily distracted can find focus. Whether you need a quiet place to read, a clean table for your study group, or just a warm corner where you can be completely alone, the fifth floor of Alden Library has a lot to offer students.

The most frightening likeness of Ben Franklin I’ve ever seen.

When the crowded mid-day escalator rides in Baker have made you hate people, head to the fifth floor of Alden. There, the five or six students separated by space and silence will not bother you. If you climb the short staircase from the fourth floor and push through the heavy double doors at the top, you will immediately see the elevators and wonder why you’d climbed the stairs at all, but you will not regret the trip. Home to the Dean’s office and a large, terrifying Ben Franklin doll, the fifth floor is populated by sturdy wooden desks equipped to seat four-to-five students a piece. Short bookshelves seem to be placed haphazardly between laptop-engrossed students and metal filing cabinets line a couple of the walls. On an average weekday afternoon, you may find a couple of students seated near the wall of windows, reading in the natural light. Though just about every student will be wearing headphones, the floor is pleasantly quiet. If you need a quiet corner of campus, the fifth floor is a great place to take a nap or cram for an exam.

The fifth floor also houses the Archives and Special Collections, as well as the library’s collection of government documents, making it a good spot to finish a research paper. The tables are usually clean, the chairs are fairly comfortable, and unlike some of the other floors in Alden, the fifth floor features both men’s and women’s restrooms. If you are like most introverts and you just need a quiet place to finish your afternoon power smoothie, the fifth floor of Alden just might become your favorite place on campus.

Six Floors Up

My corner in Alden Library.
My corner in Alden Library.
I sometimes watch people smoke in this courtyard during difficult study sessions.
I sometimes watch people smoke in this courtyard during difficult study sessions.

I’m in a predicament.

During my first semester at OU I begrudgingly enrolled in an economics course. It’s something you have to do to graduate with a journalism degree here. But with each passing lecture, I started to like the class more and more. By exam time, I had a crush on supply and demand models.

Then I enrolled in a second course. My relationship with the study of trade-offs became more serious — I began considering going steady with the dismal science. But after our first few dates it became clear that if I wanted our relationship to continue, I would need to learn to love numbers.

Here’s the problem: I’ve never gotten along well with math. Crunching numbers and manipulating equations has always made me feel anxious, stupid and tired. But I decided it was worth it, and so the above scene became mine and the numbers’ regular meeting place.

This desk (pictured) is on the sixth floor of Alden Library, hidden from the commotion of campus. It’s quiet. There is about a foot between the wall and my chair, so I know nothing is going on behind me — I think this appeals to some leftover primal instinct in me. I feel totally at ease.

In this state, I can settle into the slower, more rational way of thinking that allows me to digest unfamiliar concepts (psychologists and economists call this System 2). I can focus, totally and completely, without fear of interruption.

My relationship with economics depends on this corner of Alden Library, six floors up.



In case you missed it: Dads’ Weekend

Last weekend was Ohio University’s annual Dads’ Weekend.  This was probably obvious to those of you who participated, or  if you just ventured uptown to see it flooded with Levi 559s and Nike Monarchs.  For everyone who missed the excitement, don’t worry, we’ve got you covered.

For a pretty vanilla recap of the weekend, check out this Post article.

Did you know Alden Library put in a mini golf course for students and their dads? Check out the Athens News’ coverage here.

And finally, the pièce de resistance.  Everyone is talking about an alleged fight that occurred this Dads’ Weekend at the Overhang on Court Street that ended in a bleeding dad and a shattered window.  The Post has the scoop here.

Ohio University presidents: Their legacy and namesakes

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Seemingly, every building on campus is named after some man you’ve never heard of.  It turns out a good chunk of these men are former Ohio University presidents.   In the college’s 210 years, 20 men have been able to call themselves president of Ohio University and each contributed to the school that we enjoy today.  The following is a little bit of information about OU’s former presidents and the buildings that are their namesakes.


Jacob LindleyJacob Lindley (1809-1822)
Tenure: 1809-1822

Lindley was the first president of Ohio University and was the sole professor until 1814. The university at this time went by American Western University. Lindley Hall was built in 1917 for female residency and is currently closed for renovation.




Robert G WilsonRobert G. Wilson (1768-1851)
Tenure: 1824-1839

Wilson’s presidency saw the first African-American graduate for the university which was only the sixth instance of that happening in the country. He also had to deal with the schools first riot in 1835, which was over a pledge that required students to report on their disorderly peers. Wilson Hall was completed in 1837 and now houses the College of Arts and Sciences.



William Holmes McGuffeyWilliam Holmes McGuffey (1800-1873)
Tenure: 1839-1843

McGuffey is probably Ohio University’s most famous and internationally known school president. His primary school textbooks known as the “McGuffey Readers” were used throughout the United States and a minimum of 120 million copies were sold. He resigned after continued disagreements between him and the university’s community caused a considerable drop in staff and attendance. McGuffey Hall, a small building created in 1839 has had many purposes throughout the years including the housing of residents, student organizations and administrative offices.



Alfred RyorsAlfred Ryors (1812-1858)
Tenure: 1848-1852

During Ryors’ time at Ohio University, a student tried to set Cutler Hall on fire and he wasn’t expelled until the following year. Also, the university’s first scholarships were given out in order to recover from a temporary closure of the school that ended in 1845. Ryors Hall was finished in 1966 and is a residence hall on West Green.



Alston EllisAlston Ellis (1847-1920)
Tenure: 1901-1920

In addition to several academic advancements like the school’s first female African American student graduate, Ellis had squirrels introduced to the campus in 1908 – their posterity still thrives today. The Ellis Hall building was built in it’s entirety in 1908 and is one the university’s oldest and largest classroom buildings.



Elmer Burritt BryanElmer Burritt Bryan (1865-1934)
Tenure: 1921-1934

Bryan was tasked with increasing male attendance because women dominated the university’s biggest program – teacher preparation. A men’s gymnasium, a stadium, and Memorial Auditorium were built and Ohio University joined its first athletic conference. Bryan Hall, a residence hall on College Green was completed in 1948 and is a quiet study facility with a GPA requirement.



Herman Gerlach JamesHerman Gerlach James (1887-1959)
Tenure: 1935-1943

During James’ presidency, the graduate school was instituted, the ROTC program was established, and the newspaper’s name was changed to the Post. He also saw the mass exodus of men during WWII, a war in which he desired to participate in directly. This paired with illness caused him to resign. James Hall is a residence hall on West Green and was built in 1963.



Walter Sylvester GamertsfelderWalter Sylvester Gamertsfelder (1885-1967)
Tenure: 1943-1945

As interim president, Gamertsfelder led the University through the end of WWII and an average enrollment of just 200 men. After the war, a memorial service honored 221 alumni who had died overseas. Finished in 1956, Gamertsfelder Hall is the largest residence hall on East Green.




John Calhoun BakerJohn Calhoun Baker (1859-1999)
Tenure: 1945-1961)

Baker put extensive effort in strengthening and broadening international programs including the Nigerian educational program. He retired at age 65 due to a provision the he, himself initiated. More than one Baker Center has existed but the new one has meeting and dining rooms, theaters, as well as offices for several university organizations. It was built in 2006 and opened in the following winter.




Vernon Roger AldenVernon R. Alden (1923-)
Tenure: 1962-1969)

Under Alden’s presidency, student enrollment and the number of faculty doubled. There was also an increased commitment to research and volunteerism and expansion of international programs. Alden Library is among the 100 largest libraries in the U.S. and opened in 1969.



Claude R. Sowle,Claude R. Sowle (1928-1997)
Tenure: 1969-1974

Sowle’s administration was during the height and aftermath of the Vietnam War. Riots caused the closure of the university for extended periods of time. Enrollment and income declines did not stop the construction and renovation of several buildings and long-term leases for commercial development were authorized. Sowle Hall, called Southwest during its development, is a residence hall and was completed in 2015 along with three other halls near it.



Charles J. PingCharles J. Ping (1930-)
Tenure: 1975-1994

Ping entered as president during a time at the school where enrollment was down and a financial crisis loomed. Under his tenure, enrollment hit an all-time peak of 25,000 and the financial problems dissipated. The main campus more than doubled in size and the “Ridges” mental hospital was transferred to the university. The Ping Student Center is a recreational center and opened in 1996.




Robert GliddenRobert Glidden (1936-)
Tenure: 1994-2004

Glidden continued the work of his predecessor, Charles Ping.  An increase in scholarship funding and overall budget contributed to every corner of the school. Major renovations to Gordy Hall, Grover Center, and Memorial Auditorium were completed and he set the framework for the new Baker Student Center. The Music Building was renamed to the Robert Glidden Hall when he retired in 2004.